The Joint Effects of Some Beverages Intake and Smoking on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Korean Adults: Data Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2015

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Apr 10;17(7):2611. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17072611.


Some beverages and smoking cause an inflammatory response in the lungs and airways in a similar way, ultimately affecting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occurrence. Using a nationally representative health survey database, this study investigates the individual and joint effects of consumption of different beverages and smoking on COPD. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 15,961 Korean adults in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey of 2008-2015. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.70. We used multiple linear and logistic regression models to examine the association of beverage consumption and smoking with an FEV1/FVC ratio and odds ratio (OR) for COPD. The mean FEV1/FVC ratio decreased with increasing soda intake (p = 0.016), coffee intake (p = 0.031), and smoking status; however, the mean FEV1/FVC ratio increased with increasing green tea intake frequency (p = 0.029). When soda intake increased to 10 times/month, the OR of having COPD increased to 1.04 times (95% CI: 1.01, 1.07). The positive joint effect of soda intake and smoking on COPD was marginally significant (p = 0.058). We found that soda intake, coffee intake, and smoking increased airflow limitation while green tea intake decreased it. In addition, soda intake and smoking had a positive joint effect on COPD in the Korean population.

Keywords: Korean adults; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; coffee; green tea; interaction; lung function; smoking; soda.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Beverages
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Data Analysis
  • Female
  • Forced Expiratory Volume
  • Humans
  • Lung
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / epidemiology
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / etiology
  • Republic of Korea / epidemiology
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Vital Capacity