The human microbiota is a diverse microbial ecosystem associated with many beneficial physiological functions as well as numerous disease etiologies. Dominated by bacteria, the microbiota also includes commensal populations of fungi, viruses, archaea, and protists. Unlike bacterial microbiota, which was extensively studied in the past two decades, these non-bacterial microorganisms, their functional roles, and their interaction with one another or with host immune system have not been as widely explored. This review covers the recent findings on the non-bacterial communities of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and their involvement in health and disease, with particular focus on the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease.
Keywords: archaeome; eukaryotic parasites; gut microbiota; inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); mycobiome; virome.