The abnormal lipid profile in obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Pakistani subjects

Lipids Health Dis. 2020 Apr 14;19(1):73. doi: 10.1186/s12944-020-01248-0.


Background: Obesity has become global epidemic in the last three decades, whereas Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) still remains the most important cause of mortality in the world. The study was aimed at determining the pattern of lipid profile for the obese and CHD population in Pakistan. As obesity is a strong predisposing risk factor for CHD, we aimed to analyze the lipid parameters in both conditions and compare them with the healthy controls of the same ethnicity.

Methods: Blood samples were collected from one thousand individuals (500 with CHD, 250 with obesity, 250 healthy controls). The lipid profile (total Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL) was measured using commercially available kits. The pattern of dyslipidemia was then studied by comparing the results in both groups with controls as well as population cutoffs. The quantitative variables were checked for normality and log transformation was done for variables where appropriate. Analysis of variance and logistic regression were done to check the association of lipid parameters with obesity and CHD.

Results: The obese and CHD groups showed a dyslipidemic profile than the healthy controls. CHD group had a higher proportion of CHD in any of the first degree blood relatives (36.0% vs. 1.8%), a similar trend was observed in the obese group, where 63.9% cases had positive family history. Among cases, 50.7% had combined lipid abnormalities, i.e., the values of TC, LDL-C, TG and HDL-C, all were deranged. Whereas 49.52% had TC more than normal cut off (> 200 mg/dl), 51.6% had LDL-C > 100 mg/dl. Similarly, 80.4% of patients had TG levels more than upper normal range (> 150 mg/dl) and 64% had HDL values in moderate CHD risk group (< 50 mg/dl). The results show that Pakistani cases are hyperlipidemic for lipid traits except for HDL which is lowered. Patients with comorbidities also had lipid profiles deviated from the normal range.

Conclusion: The study provides information regarding the aberration of lipid profile in the metabolic disorders that can increase the predisposition to complications.

Keywords: Coronary heart disease; Dyslipidemia; Epidemic; Lipid profile; Obesity.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Coronary Disease / blood*
  • Dyslipidemias / blood*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / blood*
  • Pakistan
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • White People
  • Young Adult


  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Lipids
  • Triglycerides