Purpose: Surgery is recommended for most patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasias (GEP-NENs). Rates of complications and perioperative mortality have been reported in few mostly retrospective single-center series, but there has been no detailed analysis on risk factors for perioperative complications and mortality to date.
Methods: Data of patients with GEP-NENs operated between January 2015 and September 2018 were retrieved from EUROCRINE©, a European online endocrine surgical quality registry, and analyzed regarding rate and risk factors of surgical complications. Risk factors were assessed by logistic regression.
Results: Some 376 patients (211 female, 167 male; age median 63, range 15-89 years) were included. Most NENs were located in the small intestine (SI) (n = 132) or pancreas (n = 111), the rest in the stomach (n = 34), duodenum (n = 30), appendix (n = 30), colon, and rectum (n = 22), or with unknown primary (n = 15). Of the tumors, 320 (85.1%) were well or moderately differentiated, and 147 (39.1%) of the patients had distant metastases at the time of operation. Severe complications (Dindo-Clavien ≥ 3) occurred in 56 (14.9%) patients, and 4 (1.1%) patients died perioperatively. Severe complications were more frequent in surgery for duodenopancreatic NENs (n = 31; 22.0%) compared with SI-NENs (n = 15; 11.4%) (p = 0.014), in patients with lymph node metastases operated with curative aim of surgery (n = 24; 21.4%) versus non-metastasized tumors or palliative surgery (n = 32; 12.1%) (p = 0.020), and in functioning tumors (n = 20; 23.0%) versus non-functioning tumors (n = 30; 13.5%) (p = 0.042). Complication rates were not significantly associated with tumor stage or grade.
Conclusions: Severe complications are frequent in GEP-NEN surgery. Besides duodenopancreatic tumor location, curative resection of nodal metastases and functioning tumors are risk factors for complications.
Keywords: Gastro-entero-pancreatic system; Neuroendocrine neoplasia; Pancreas; Perioperative complications; Small intestine; Surgery.