The French eHealth Acceptability Scale Using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 Model: Instrument Validation Study

J Med Internet Res. 2020 Apr 15;22(4):e16520. doi: 10.2196/16520.

Abstract

Background: Technology-based physical activity suggests new opportunities for public health initiatives. Yet only 45% of technology interventions are theoretically based, and the acceptability mechanisms have been insufficiently studied. Acceptability and acceptance theories have provided interesting insights, particularly the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2). In several studies, the psychometric qualities of acceptability scales have not been well demonstrated.

Objective: The aim of this study was to adapt the UTAUT2 to the electronic health (eHealth) context and provide a preliminary validation of the eHealth acceptability scale in a French sample.

Methods: In line with the reference validation methodologies, we carried out the following stages of validating the scale with a total of 576 volunteers: translation and adaptation, dimensionality tests, reliability tests, and construct validity tests. We used confirmatory factor analysis to validate a 22-item instrument with 7 subscales: Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Influence, Facilitating Conditions, Hedonic Motivation, Price Value, and Habit.

Results: The dimensionality tests showed that the bifactor confirmatory model presented the best fit indexes: χ2173=434.86 (P<.001), χ2/df=2.51, comparative fit index=.97, Tucker-Lewis index=.95, and root mean square error of approximation=.053 (90% CI .047-.059). The invariance tests of the eHealth acceptability factor structure by sex demonstrated no significant differences between models, except for the strict model. The partial strict model demonstrated no difference from the strong model. Cronbach alphas ranged from .77 to .95 for the 7 factors. We measured the internal reliability with a 4-week interval. The intraclass correlation coefficients for each subscale ranged from .62 to .88, and there were no significant differences in the t tests from time 1 to time 2. Assessments for convergent validity demonstrated that the eHealth acceptability constructs were significantly and positively related to behavioral intention, usage, and constructs from the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior.

Conclusions: The 22-item French-language eHealth acceptability scale, divided into 7 subscales, showed good psychometric qualities. This scale is thus a valid and reliable tool to assess the acceptability of eHealth technology in French-speaking samples and offers promising avenues in research, clinical practice, and marketing.

Keywords: acceptability; factor analysis, statistical; surveys and questionnaires; telemedicine; validation study.