A New Assessment for Activities of Daily Living in Spanish Schoolchildren: A Preliminary Study of its Psychometric Properties

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Apr 13;17(8):2673. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17082673.


Background: Activities of daily living (ADL), which are divided into basic (BADL) and instrumental (IADL), allows us to survive and to live in the society. Cognitive skills are a key aspect in BADL outcomes. After reviewing existing BADL tools for Spanish schoolchildren, issues such as not covering the full age range or not having a BADL-centred vision were found. We aim to develop a new tool for BADL assessment in Spanish schoolchildren.

Methods: The new tool was administered to 375 participants (47.2% boys and 52.8% girls) from 6 to 12 years of age. Analyses were carried out to find out the structure (semiconfirmatory factor analysis) and internal consistency (ordinal alpha) of BADL.

Results: Four scales formed the instrument (Eating, Personal Hygiene, Getting Dressed, and General Functioning) with an interpretable solution of 12 factors (Manual Dexterity, Proprioception, Oral Sensitivity, Good Manners, Hygiene and Grooming, Toileting Needs Communication, Bladder and Bowel Control, Showering, Independent Dressing Tasks, Full Dressing, Executive Functions, and Self-Regulation) with 84 items + 6 qualitative items for girls. The reliability values obtained were acceptable (.70-.88).

Conclusions: The tool seems to be a practical and reliable instrument to assess BADL and cognitive skills during BADL in Spanish schoolchildren.

Keywords: activities of daily living; assessment; child; emotional regulation; executive function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living*
  • Child
  • Executive Function*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results