Diagnosis and treatment of adults with congenital heart disease

Future Cardiol. 2020 Jul;16(4):317-342. doi: 10.2217/fca-2019-0061. Epub 2020 Apr 16.


Approximately 50 million adults worldwide have known congenital heart disease (CHD). Among the most common types of CHD defects in adults are atrial septal defects and ventricular septal defects followed by complex congenital heart lesions such as tetralogy of Fallot. Adults with CHDs are more likely to have hypertension, cerebral vascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease than age-matched controls without CHD. Moreover, by the age of 50, adults with CHD are at a greater than 10% risk of experiencing cardiac dysrhythmias and approximately 4% experience sudden death. Consequently, adults with CHD require healthcare that is two- to four-times greater than adults without CHD. This paper discusses the diagnosis and treatment of adults with atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects and tetralogy of Fallot.

Keywords: ASDs; ECG; TOF; VSDs; atrial septal defects; cardiac catheterization; chest x-ray; dysrhythmia; echocardiograms; surgical repair; tetralogy of Fallot; ventricular septal defects.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / diagnosis
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / epidemiology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / therapy
  • Heart Septal Defects, Atrial*
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular*
  • Humans
  • Tetralogy of Fallot* / epidemiology