SARS-CoV-2: Recent Reports on Antiviral Therapies Based on Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Darunavir/Umifenovir, Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Favipiravir and Other Drugs for the Treatment of the New Coronavirus

Curr Med Chem. 2020 Apr 16. doi: 10.2174/0929867327666200416131117. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Here we report on the most recent updates on experimental drugs successfully em- ployed in the treatment of the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, also referred to as COVID-19 (COronaVIrus Disease 19). In particular, several cases of recovered patients have been reported after being treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (which is widely used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection) in combination with the anti-flu drug oseltamivir. In addition, remdesivir, which has been previously administered to Ebola virus patients, has also proven effective in the U.S. against coronavirus, while antimalarial chloroquine and hydroxy- chloroquine, favipiravir and co-administered darunavir and umifenovir (in patient therapies) were also recently recorded as having anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects. Since the recoveries/deaths ratio in the last weeks significantly increased, especially in China, it is clear that the experi- mental antiviral therapy, together with the availability of intensive care unit beds in hospitals and rigorous government control measures, all play an important role in dealing with this vi- rus. This also stresses the urgent need for the scientific community to devote its efforts to the development of other more specific antiviral strategies.

Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; antiviral drugs; hydroxychloroquine; lopinavir; remdesivir; ritonavir.; favipiravir; SARS-CoV-2.