Tuberculosis associated with diabetes mellitus by age group in Brazil: a retrospective cohort study, 2007-2014

Braz J Infect Dis. 2020 Mar-Apr;24(2):130-136. doi: 10.1016/j.bjid.2020.03.005. Epub 2020 Apr 13.


Diabetes mellitus (DM) has important implications for tuberculosis (TB), as it increases the risk for disease activation and is associated with unfavorable TB treatment outcomes. This study analyzed the association between TB and DM (TBDM) in Brazil from 2007 to 2014. This was a retrospective cohort study carried out in 709,429 new cases of TB reported to the national disease notification system of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Sociodemographic and clinical data, test results, and treatment outcomes were analyzed. TBDM was found in 6.0% of TB cases, mostly in men aged 18-59 years. The lethality rate was 5.1% higher in all age groups with diabetes, except in those older than 60 years of age. The frequency of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in patients with DM was higher in those without DM, with a 1.6- to 3.8-fold increase in the odds of MDR-TB. The elderly showed an increase in the prevalence of TBDM from 14.3% to 18.2%. Women were more likely to have DM, and elderly women had 41.0% greater chance of having DM. Relapse was significant among patients younger than 17 years of age. TBDM was high in Brazil, affected all age groups, and was associated with unfavorable TB treatment outcomes. We emphasize the need for strategies for the clinical management of diabetic tuberculosis patients in Brazil aiming at minimizing relapses, deaths, and MDR-TB.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Mortality; Tuberculosis.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution*
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology*
  • Disease Notification
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Tuberculosis / complications
  • Tuberculosis / epidemiology*
  • Young Adult