Chronic urticaria (CU) and angioedema can occur at any age. Although most CU with or without angioedema occurs in adults, it can also present in children or the elderly and can complicate pregnancy and breast-feeding. The presentations of CU and angioedema are different in children, middle-aged adults, and older patients as are the differential diagnoses. Therefore, the management of CU and angioedema in these different age groups and special populations needs to take into account the age-specific features of urticaria and angioedema. Here, we describe the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of CU and angioedema in children, middle-aged adults, and older patients. This review focuses on CU with or without angioedema and does not discuss acute urticaria or bradykinin-mediated angioedema.
Keywords: Chronic urticaria; Mechanisms; Pregnancy; Therapy.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.