Incident Chronic Kidney Disease Risk among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020 Jun;31(6):1315-1324. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2019101008. Epub 2020 Apr 16.


Background: Although Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are often considered a single ethnic group, they represent a heterogenous mixture of ancestries who can self-identify as any race defined by the U.S. Census. They have higher ESKD incidence compared with non-Hispanics, but little is known about the CKD incidence in this population.

Methods: We examined rates and risk factors of new-onset CKD using data from 8774 adults in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Incident CKD was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with eGFR decline ≥1 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, or urine albumin/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Rates and incidence rate ratios were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance while accounting for the study's complex design.

Results: Mean age was 40.3 years at baseline and 51.6% were women. In 5.9 years of follow-up, 648 participants developed CKD (10.6 per 1000 person-years). The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates ranged from 6.6 (other Hispanic/mixed background) to 15.0 (Puerto Ricans) per 1000 person-years. Compared with Mexican background, Puerto Rican background was associated with 79% increased risk for incident CKD (incidence rate ratios, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 2.40), which was accounted for by differences in sociodemographics, acculturation, and clinical characteristics. In multivariable regression analysis, predictors of incident CKD included BP >140/90 mm Hg, higher glycated hemoglobin, lower baseline eGFR, and higher baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio.

Conclusions: CKD incidence varies by Hispanic/Latino heritage and this disparity may be in part attributed to differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Culturally tailored public heath interventions focusing on the prevention and control of risk factors might ameliorate the CKD burden in this population.

Keywords: CKD; clinical epidemiology; risk factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Hispanic or Latino*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Public Health
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / ethnology
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human