The impact of peripheral arterial disease on patients with mechanical circulatory support

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc. 2020 Apr 7:28:100509. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100509. eCollection 2020 Jun.


Background: Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are indicated as bridging or destination therapy for patients with advanced (Stage D) heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Due to the clustering of the mutual risk factors, HFrEF patients have a high prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This, along with the fact that continuous flow LVAD influence shear stress on the vasculature, can further deteriorate the PAD.

Methods: We queried the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (2002-2014) to identify the burden of pre-existing PAD cases, its association with LVAD, in-hospital mortality, and other complications of LVAD. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test.

Results: A total of 20,817 LVAD patients, comprising of 1,625 (7.8%) PAD and 19,192 (91.2%) non-PAD patients were included in the study. The odds of in-hospital mortality in PAD patients were significantly higher compared to non-PAD group (OR 1.29, CI, 1.07-1.55, P = 0.007). The PAD group had significantly higher adjusted odds as compared to non-PAD group for acute myocardial infarction (aOR 1.29; 95% CI, 1.07-1.55, P = 0.007), major bleeding requiring transfusion (aOR, 1.286; 95% CI, 1.136-1.456, P < 0.001), vascular complications (aOR, 2.360; 95% CI, 1.781-3.126, P < 0.001), surgical wound infections (aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.17-1.94, P = 0.002), thromboembolic complications (aOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.36-2.10, P < 0.001), implant-related complications (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19-1.80, P < 0.001), and acute renal failure (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12-1.43, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: PAD patients can have high LVAD associated mortality as compared to non-PAD.

Keywords: BiVAD, biventricular assist device; CABG, coronary artery bypass surgery; CAD, coronary artery disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; End-stage heart failure; LOS, length of stay; LVAD, left ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; MCS, mechanical circulatory support; NIS, National Inpatient Sample; OMT, optimal medical therapy; PAD, peripheral arterial disease; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; Peripheral arterial disease.