Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition, of which one of the cardinal pathological hallmarks is the extracellular accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides. These peptides are generated via proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), in a manner dependent on the β-secretase, BACE1 and the multicomponent γ-secretase complex. Recent data also suggest a contributory role in AD of transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43). There is little insight into a possible mechanism linking TDP-43 and APP processing. To this end, we used cultured human neuronal cells to investigate the ability of TDP-43 to interact with APP and modulate its proteolytic processing. Immunocytochemistry showed TDP-43 to be spatially segregated from both the extranuclear APP holoprotein and its nuclear C-terminal fragment. The latter (APP intracellular domain) was shown to predominantly localise to nucleoli, from which TDP-43 was excluded. Furthermore, neither overexpression of each of the APP isoforms nor siRNA-mediated knockdown of APP had any effect on TDP-43 expression. Doxycycline-stimulated overexpression of TDP-43 was explored in an inducible cell line. Overexpression of TDP-43 had no effect on expression of the APP holoprotein, nor any of the key proteins involved in its proteolysis. Furthermore, increased TDP-43 expression had no effect on BACE1 enzymatic activity or immunoreactivity of Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42 or the Aβ1-40:Aβ1-42 ratio. Also, siRNA-mediated knockdown of TDP-43 had no effect on BACE1 immunoreactivity. Taken together, these data indicate that TDP-43 function and/or dysfunction in AD is likely independent from dysregulation of APP expression and proteolytic processing and Aβ generation.
Keywords: Alzheimers disease; Amyloid precursor protein; BACE1; Gene regulation; TDP-43; proteolysis.
© 2020 The Author(s).