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. 2020 Apr 17;126(12):1671-1681.
doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.317134. Online ahead of print.

Association of Inpatient Use of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers With Mortality Among Patients With Hypertension Hospitalized With COVID-19

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Free PMC article

Association of Inpatient Use of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers With Mortality Among Patients With Hypertension Hospitalized With COVID-19

Peng Zhang et al. Circ Res. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Rationale: Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) is a major concern for clinicians treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with hypertension. Objective: To determine the association between in-hospital use of ACEI/ARB and all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Methods and Results: This retrospective, multi-center study included 1128 adult patients with hypertension diagnosed with COVID-19, including 188 taking ACEI/ARB (ACEI/ARB group; median age 64 [IQR 55-68] years; 53.2% men) and 940 without using ACEI/ARB (non-ACEI/ARB group; median age 64 [IQR 57-69]; 53.5% men), who were admitted to nine hospitals in Hubei Province, China from December 31, 2019 to February 20, 2020. Unadjusted mortality rate was lower in the ACEI/ARB group versus the non-ACEI/ARB group (3.7% vs. 9.8%; P = 0.01). In mixed-effect Cox model treating site as a random effect, after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, and in-hospital medications, the detected risk for all-cause mortality was lower in the ACEI/ARB group versus the non-ACEI/ARB group (adjusted HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.19-0.92; P =0.03). In a propensity score-matched analysis followed by adjusting imbalanced variables in mixed-effect Cox model, the results consistently demonstrated lower risk of COVID-19 mortality in patients who received ACEI/ARB versus those who did not receive ACEI/ARB (adjusted HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15-0.89; P = 0.03). Further subgroup propensity score-matched analysis indicated that, compared to use of other antihypertensive drugs, ACEI/ARB was also associated with decreased mortality (adjusted HR, 0.30; 95%CI, 0.12-0.70; P = 0.01) in COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Conclusions: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hypertension, inpatient use of ACEI/ARB was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with ACEI/ARB non-users. While study interpretation needs to consider the potential for residual confounders, it is unlikely that in-hospital use of ACEI/ARB was associated with an increased mortality risk.

Keywords: ACEI/ARB; COVID-19; Pneumonia; SARS-COV-2.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
The flowchart showing the strategy of participant enrollment. a, 1128 participants with a history of hypertension enrolled in the hypertension cohort. b, 2302 participants without a history of hypertension enrolled in the nonhypertension cohort. c, 188 patients with hypertension who taking ACEI (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) or ARB (angiotensin II receptor blocker) during hospitalization were enrolled in the ACEI/ARB cohort. Patients discontinued treatment of hypertension due to inability to take medications or hypotension were not excluded from the cohort. d, 940 patients with hypertension who never taking ACEI and ARB during hospitalization were enrolled in the non-ACEI/ARB cohort. e, Propensity score-matched age, gender, cough, dyspnea, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and chronic renal disease), chest computerized tomography (CT)-diagnosed lung lesions, and incidence of increased CRP (C-reactive protein) and creatine. Hospital site as a random effect in the mixed-effect Cox model. f, 557 patients with antihypertension drug who never taking ACEI and ARB during hospitalization were enrolled in the secondary non-ACEI/ARB cohort. SARS-COV-2 indicates severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Kaplan-Meier curves for cumulative probability of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality during 28-day follow-up duration in ACEI (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor)/ARB (angiotensin II receptor blocker) or non-ACEI/ARB cohort among 1128 patients with hypertension. The unmatched model and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) observation time was 28 (20–28) in ACEI/ARB cohort and 28 (19–28) in non-ACEI/ARB cohort (A). Propensity-score matched model and the median (IQR) observation time was 28 (20.5–28) in ACEI/ARB cohort and 28 (18–28) in non-ACEI/ARB cohort (B). The blips indicate censoring. HR indicates hazard ratio.

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