Background & aims: Dietary therapies based on exclusion of usual dietary elements induce remission in children with Crohn's disease (CD), whereas re-exposure induces rebound inflammation. We investigated whether a short trial of dietary therapy, to identify patients with and without a rapid response or remission on the diet (DiRe), can be used to predict success or failure of long-term dietary therapy.
Methods: We collected data from the multicenter randomized trial of the CD exclusion diet (CDED). We analyzed data from 73 children with mild to moderate CD (mean age, 14.2 ± 2.7 y) randomly assigned to groups given either exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN, n = 34) or the CDED with 50% (partial) enteral nutrition (n = 39). Patients were examined at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6 of the diet. Remission was defined as CD activity index scores below 10 and response was defined as a decrease in score of 12.5 points or clinical remission. Inflammation was assessed by measurement of C-reactive protein.
Results: At week 3 of the diet, 82% of patients in the CDED group and 85% of patients in the EEN group had a DiRe. Median serum levels of C-reactive protein had decreased from 24 mg/L at baseline to 5.0 mg/L at week 3 (P < .001). Among the 49 patients in remission at week 6, 46 patients (94%) had a DiRe and 81% were in clinical remission by week 3. In multivariable analysis, remission at week 3 increased odds of remission by week 6 (odds ratio, 6.37; 95% CI, 1.6-25; P = .008) whereas poor compliance reduced odds of remission at week 6 (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.012-0.46; P = .006).
Conclusions: For pediatric patients with active CD, dietary therapies (CDED and EEN) induce a rapid clinical response (by week 3). Identification of patients with and without a rapid response to diet might help identify those who, with compliance, will be in clinical remission by week 6 of the diet. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT01728870.
Keywords: Child; Crohn Disease; Crohn Disease Exclusion Diet; Diet; Emulsifiers; Exclusive Enteral Nutrition; Food; High Fat Diet; Nutrients; Pediatric IBD; Processed Food; Response to Treatment; Western Diet.
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