Canine collars: an investigation of collar type and the forces applied to a simulated neck model

Vet Rec. 2020 Oct 3;187(7):e52. doi: 10.1136/vr.105681. Epub 2020 Apr 17.


Background: Dog collars have the potential to cause harm when the dog pulls on the lead. This study aimed to determine the effects of collar type and force applied using the lead on the pressure on a simulated neck model.

Methods: Seven collars and a slip lead were tested on a canine neck model. This consisted of a plastic cylinder 'neck', with a pressure sensor beneath the collar. A range of forces were applied to the lead representing different interactions: firm pull (40 N), strong pull (70 N) and jerk (mean force 141 N). Contact area of the collar and pressure on the neck were recorded.

Results: Collars exerted a pressure of between 83 kPa and 832 kPa on the model neck. There was a significant effect of collar type (F(7)=25.69, P<0.001) and force applied (F(2)=42.60, P<0.001) on the pressure exerted on the neck. Collar type (χ(7)=64.94, P<0.001), but not force applied (χ(2)=3.20, P=0.202), affected the contact area that the pressure was exerted over.

Conclusion: Variation in the pressures exerted on the neck may have implications on comfort and the potential to cause injury. No single collar tested provided a pressure considered low enough to mitigate the risk of injury when pulling on the lead.

Keywords: dog collar; injury; pressure; training.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Dogs*
  • Models, Biological
  • Neck / physiology*
  • Restraint, Physical / instrumentation
  • Restraint, Physical / veterinary*