Ketogenic diet (KD) is comprised of a distinct macronutrient combination: i.e. 90% fat, 8% of protein and 2% of carbohydrates, typically characterized as a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet. KD's efficacy was largely established for treatment resistant epilepsy in children, but its mental, emotional and behavioral effects remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, the efficacious effects of KD in childhood epilepsy provide rationale for repurposing this approach for other brain-based disorders. Consequently, clinicians and researchers should be aware of the evidence regarding efficacy, as well as the benefits and risks of adopting this diet. Results from animals and humans studies provide equivocal evidence across multiple domains of psychopathology. Conceptually, KD shows promise to serve as an efficacious treatment for mental disorders.
Keywords: Behaviors; Cognition; Ketogenic diet; Mental disorders; Nutritional psychiatry.
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