Pork is the main meat produced and consumed in the Philippines. The majority of pigs are raised by smallholders who experience a range of constraints to their pig production. This study presents the findings of the first part of an overarching project that used an Ecohealth approach and aimed to improve the production and competitiveness of the smallholder pig system in an area of the Philippines. A participatory approach was embraced, combining conventional and participatory epidemiology methods followed by a stakeholder discussion. The first aim was to identify management and health-related constraints to pig production among smallholder famers in San Simon, Pampanga, Philippines. The second aim was for the project team and stakeholders to jointly prioritise activities for the immediate future to address these constraints. Key management and health-related constraints identified included inadequate water supply to pigs, particularly lactating and gestating sows, and a range of feeding-related issues. Diarrhoea was recognised as the disease syndrome of highest priority and limited record keeping meant that farmers were unable to assess the productivity and profitability of their pig farming enterprises. Actions jointly prioritised by stakeholders and the project team were: the appointment of a project coordinator within each barangay; conduct two sets of seminars, the first covering water and nutrition and the second piglet management and diarrhoea, to be delivered by technical experts but with farmer "trusted sources" also sharing their experiences; development of easily understandable leaflets and posters covering key technical information; promotion of nipple drinkers attached to five-gallon water containers and creep boxes for piglets, and conduct of a record keeping workshop with a small group of innovative farmers to develop a useful and usable tool for record keeping. The use of multiple approaches to data-gathering enabled triangulation of study findings. Without any one of these components the understanding of the pig production system would have been less complete and it is possible that the proposed actions would not have been as well-tailored to the needs of the farmers. The participatory approach, in particular the stakeholder discussion, provided the opportunity to embrace the "deciding together" and "acting together" stances of participation rather than the lower "information giving" stance, thereby giving stakeholders greater ownership of the future activities of the overarching project and beyond.
Keywords: Constraints; Ecohealth; Participatory epidemiology; Philippines; Pig; Smallholder.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Conflict of interest statement
Declaration of Competing Interest None.
A longitudinal study of unweaned piglets raised by smallholder farmers in the Philippines.Prev Vet Med. 2005 Aug 12;70(1-2):115-31. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.02.014. Epub 2005 Apr 18. Prev Vet Med. 2005. PMID: 15967246
Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda.Prev Vet Med. 2014 Dec 1;117(3-4):565-76. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.10.012. Epub 2014 Oct 25. Prev Vet Med. 2014. PMID: 25458705
A longitudinal study of sows and boars raised by smallholder farmers in the Philippines.Prev Vet Med. 2005 Aug 12;70(1-2):95-113. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.02.015. Epub 2005 Apr 11. Prev Vet Med. 2005. PMID: 15967245
The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk.Acta Trop. 2003 Jun;87(1):13-23. doi: 10.1016/s0001-706x(03)00051-2. Acta Trop. 2003. PMID: 12781374 Review.
Evidence Brief: Comparative Effectiveness of Appointment Recall Reminder Procedures for Follow-up Appointments.2015 Jul. In: VA Evidence Synthesis Program Evidence Briefs [Internet]. Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2011–. VA Evidence Synthesis Program Evidence Briefs. 2011–. PMID: 27606388 Free Books & Documents. Review.