Objective: To investigate neuroprotective properties of the farnesene sesquiterpene on the experimental Alzheimer's disease model in vitro.
Methods: Human neuroblastoma cell line (SHSY-5Y) was differentiated into neuron-like cells by using retinoic acid to constitute the in vitro Alzheimer's Disease model. β-amyloid 1-42 protein was applied to the transformed cells for 24 and 48 hours in a wide dose ranges (3.125-200 μM) to establish AD cytotoxicity. Then, farnesene was applied to cell cultures in a wide spectrum dose interval (1.625-100 μg/ml) to investigate neuroprotective effect against β-amyloid for 24 and 48 hours. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release tests were executed to determine cytotoxicity in the Alzheimer model. Nuclear DNA integrity of cells was examined under the fluorescent microscope using the Hoechst 33258 staining method. Furthermore, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS) levels were analyzed to understand the protection mechanism of the farnesene application on the cell culture model. Finally, flow cytometry analysis was used to find out the cell death mechanism after beta-amyloid and farnesene application to the cell culture.
Results: Cell viability tests revealed significant neuroprotection against β-amyloid toxicity in both 24 and 48 hours and the Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining method showed a significant decrease in necrotic deaths after farnesene application in the cell cultures. Finally, flow cytometry analysis put forth that farnesene could decrease necrotic cell death up to 3-fold resulted from beta-amyloid exposure.
Conclusion: According to the investigations, farnesene can potentially be a safe, anti-necrotic and neuroprotective agents against Alzheimer's disease.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; acetylcholinesterase activity; antioxidant effect; farnesene sesquiterpene; β-amyloid protein.