Orbital non-HIV immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after cytapheresis

Eur J Ophthalmol. 2021 May;31(3):NP85-NP88. doi: 10.1177/1120672120919339. Epub 2020 Apr 21.


The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is a phenomenon typically described in HIV patient during the restoration of CD4 count after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Non-HIV immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has also been described after organ transplantation or immune recovery in neutropenic patients. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who presented to our department with left painful proptosis and ophthalmoplegia 2 days after having performed cytapheresis for a mantel cell lymphoma. Systemic work up and biopsy were performed and symptoms were relieved with intravenous steroids therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of orbital non-HIV immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome described in the literature.

Keywords: HIV; Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome; cytapheresis; mantle cell lymphoma; orbital inflammation.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Cytapheresis
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome* / drug therapy
  • Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome* / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged