Background: Accurate lung cancer classification is crucial to guide therapeutic decisions. However, histological subtyping by pathologists requires tumor tissue-a necessity that is often intrinsically associated with procedural difficulties. The analysis of circulating tumor DNA present in minimal-invasive blood samples, referred to as liquid biopsies, could therefore emerge as an attractive alternative.
Methods: Concerning adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma, our proof of concept study investigates the potential of liquid biopsy-derived copy number alterations, derived from single-end shallow whole-genome sequencing (coverage 0.1-0.5×), across 51 advanced stage lung cancer patients.
Results: Genomic abnormality testing reveals anomalies in 86.3% of the liquid biopsies (16/20 for adenocarcinoma, 13/16 for squamous cell, and 15/15 for small cell carcinoma). We demonstrate that copy number profiles from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor biopsies are well represented by their liquid equivalent. This is especially valid within the small cell carcinoma group, where paired profiles have an average Pearson correlation of 0.86 (95% CI 0.79-0.93). A predictive model trained with public data, derived from 843 tissue biopsies, shows that liquid biopsies exhibit multiple deviations that reflect histological classification. Most notably, distinguishing small from non-small cell lung cancer is characterized by an area under the curve of 0.98 during receiver operating characteristic analysis. Additionally, we investigated how deeper paired-end sequencing, which will eventually become feasible for routine diagnosis, empowers tumor read enrichment by insert size filtering: for all of the 29 resequenced liquid biopsies, the tumor fraction could be increased in silico, thereby "rescuing" three out of five cases with previously undetectable alterations.
Conclusions: Copy number profiling of cell-free DNA enables histological classification. Since shallow whole-genome sequencing is inexpensive and often fully operational at routine molecular laboratories, this finding has current diagnostic potential, especially for patients with lesions that are difficult to reach.
Keywords: Cell-free DNA; Copy number alterations; Histological classification; Liquid biopsy; Lung cancer; Shallow whole-genome sequencing.