Background/objectives: Numerous clinical trials have confirmed that supplementation with purified anthocyanins has favorable effects on metabolic diseases, but the dose-response of dyslipidemia to anthocyanin supplementation remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of anthocyanin supplementation in different doses on lipid profile.
Subjects/methods: We randomly assigned 176 dyslipidemic subjects aged 35-70 to three purified anthocyanin groups (40 mg/day, n = 45; 80 mg/day, n = 42; 320 mg/day, n = 43) and a placebo group (n = 46). Anthropometric parameters, serum lipid profiles, and cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) were measured at baseline, and at the end of 6 and 12 weeks.
Results: After 12 weeks of supplementation, significant differences in CEC (P = 0.033), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P = 0.043), and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) (P = 0.022) were observed between four groups. Compared with placebo, 320 mg/day anthocyanin significantly increased CEC (35.8%, 95% CI: 11.5-60.2%; P = 0.004), HDL-C (0.07 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.01-0.14; P = 0.003), and ApoA-I (0.07 g/L, 95% CI: 0.01-0.12; P = 0.008). Linear trend analysis showed that anthocyanin supplementation has a strong dose-response relationship with CEC (P = 0.002), HDL-C (P = 0.038), and ApoA-I (P = 0.023). Moreover, the enhancement of CEC showed positive correlations with the increase in HDL-C (r = 0.215, P < 0.01) and APOA-I (r = 0.327, P < 0.01).
Conclusions: Anthocyanin supplementation at 0-320 mg/day for 12 weeks enhances CEC in a dose-response manner in dyslipidemic subjects. Anthocyanin supplementation doses of 80-320 mg/day can improve serum HDL-C levels and HDL-induced CEC.