Multicenter experience with the antegrade fenestration and reentry technique for chronic total occlusion recanalization

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2021 Jan 1;97(1):E40-E50. doi: 10.1002/ccd.28941. Epub 2020 Apr 22.


Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antegrade fenestration and reentry (AFR) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) recanalization in a multicenter registry.

Background: Adoption of antegrade dissection/reentry (ADR) for CTO recanalization has been limited, and novel ADR techniques are needed.

Methods: AFR involves the balloon-induced creation of multiple fenestrations between the false and true lumen. A targeted true lumen reentry is subsequently achieved with a low tip-load polymer-jacketed guidewire. Following the initial description and dissemination of AFR, patients undergoing AFR-based CTO recanalization at nine centers were included in the present registry. Study endpoints were AFR success, procedural success, and target-lesion failure (TLF) on follow-up.

Results: We included 41 patients. Mean J-CTO score was 2.5 ± 1.4. In 80.5% of cases, AFR was performed after failed antegrade wire escalation. Another ADR technique was used before AFR in one-third of cases. AFR achieved distal true lumen reentry in n = 27/41 (65.9%) cases. In n = 14/41 (34.1%) cases with AFR failure, use of alternative techniques led to successful CTO recanalization in eight additional patients. The overall technical and procedural success rates were 85.4% and 82.9%, respectively. No AFR-related complications were observed. One-year TLF rate was 8.3% overall, with no differences between successful and failed AFR.

Conclusions: We report on AFR feasibility in a multicenter registry of patients undergoing CTO recanalization. We observed a moderate success rate, coupled with the absence of complications. Moreover, even a failed AFR attempt did not preclude the use of alternative techniques to achieve recanalization. Further studies should confirm and extend our findings.

Keywords: chronic total occlusion; dissection; percutaneous coronary intervention; reentry; subintimal.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Chronic Disease
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Occlusion* / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Occlusion* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention*
  • Registries
  • Treatment Outcome