Cisplatin is an antineoplastic drug administered at suboptimal and intermittent doses to avoid life-threatening effects. Although this regimen shortly improves symptoms in the short term, it also leads to more malignant disease in the long term. We describe a multilayered analysis ranging from chromatin to translation-integrating chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq), RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and ribosome profiling-to understand how cisplatin confers (pre)malignant features by using a well-established ovarian cancer model of cisplatin exposure. This approach allows us to segregate the human transcriptome into gene modules representing distinct regulatory principles and to characterize that the most cisplatin-disrupted modules are associated with underlying events of super-enhancer plasticity. These events arise when cancer cells initiate without ultimately ending the program of drug-stimulated death. Using a PageRank-based algorithm, we predict super-enhancer regulator ISL1 as a driver of this plasticity and validate this prediction by using CRISPR/dCas9-KRAB inhibition (CRISPRi) and CRISPR/dCas9-VP64 activation (CRISPRa) tools. Together, we propose that cisplatin reprograms cancer cells when inducing them to undergo near-to-death experiences.
Keywords: GRO-seq; PageRank; Seurat; cisplatin; drug resistance; gene dysregulation; multi-omic approach; ovarian cancer; ribosome profiling; super-enhancer.
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.