A low threshold for neonatal intervention yields a high rate of biventricular outcomes in pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum

Cardiol Young. 2020 May;30(5):649-655. doi: 10.1017/S1047951120000700. Epub 2020 Apr 23.


Aims: Management strategies for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum are variable and are based on right ventricular morphology and associated abnormalities. Catheter perforation of the pulmonary valve provides an alternative strategy to surgery in the neonatal period. We sought to assess the long-term outcome in terms of survival, re-intervention, and functional ventricular outcome in the setting of a 26-year single-centre experience of low threshold inclusion criteria for percutaneous valvotomy.

Methods and results: Retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum from 1990 to 2016 at a tertiary referral centre, was performed. Of 71 patients, 48 were brought to the catheterisation laboratory for intervention. Catheter valvotomy was successful in 45 patients (94%). Twenty-three patients (51%) also underwent ductus arteriosus stenting. The length of intensive care and hospital stay was significantly shorter, and early re-interventions were significantly reduced in the catheterisation group. There were eight deaths (17%); all within 35 days of the procedure. Of the survivors, only one has required a Fontan circulation. Twenty-eight patients (74%) have undergone biventricular repair and nine patients (24%) have one-and-a-half ventricle circulation. Following successful valvotomy, 80% of patients required further catheter-based or surgical interventions.

Conclusions: A low threshold for initial interventional management yielded a high rate of successful biventricular circulations. Although mortality was low in patients who survived the peri-procedural period, the rate of re-intervention remained high in all groups.

Keywords: CHD; complications; outcomes; percutaneous intervention; pulmonary valve perforation.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Catheterization / adverse effects
  • Cardiac Catheterization / instrumentation*
  • Catheter Ablation / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Length of Stay
  • Male
  • Pulmonary Atresia / surgery*
  • Pulmonary Valve / surgery*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stents*
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome

Supplementary concepts

  • Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum