Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) management using self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) does not normalize pregnancy outcomes. Objective: We aimed to conduct an observational study to explore if continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could identify elevated glucose levels not apparent in women with GDM managed using SMBG. Study Design: A 7-day masked-CGM (iPro; Medtronic) was performed within 2 weeks of GDM diagnosis, immediately post-GDM education, but before insulin commencement as determined by SMBG. CGM data regarding hyperglycemia (sensor glucose >126 mg/dL [06:00-00:00 h] and >99 mg/dL [00:00-06:00 h] for >10% of time), time with health care professionals, treatment, and pregnancy outcome were collected. Comparisons (Mann-Whitney test) were performed between subjects subsequently commenced on insulin versus those continued with diet and lifestyle measures alone. Results: Ninety women of mean (standard deviation) gestational age weeks 27(1) were studied. Those prescribed insulin (n = 34) compared with those managed with diet and lifestyle alone (n = 56) had a greater time in hyperglycemia (P = 0.0001). Of those not prescribed insulin, 35/56 (61%) breached CGM cutoffs between 00:00 and 06:00 h; 11/56 (20%) breached 6.00-00.00 h CGM cutoffs for >10% of the time; and 21/45 (47%) with optimal CGM glucose levels during the daytime spent >10% time in hyperglycemia between 00.00 and 06:00 h. In contrast, SMBG measurements exceeded the clinical targets of <120 mg/dL postdinner in 5.4% and <100 mg/dL fasting in 0% of the subjects. Conclusions: CGM provides a more comprehensive assessment of nocturnal hyperglycemia than SMBG and could improve targeting of interventions in GDM. Larger studies to better define CGM targets are required, which once established will inform studies aimed at targeting nocturnal glucose levels.
Keywords: Continuous glucose monitoring; Gestational diabetes mellitus; Large for gestational age; Nocturnal hyperglycemia; Self-monitoring blood glucose.