Prevention and therapy of COVID-19 via exogenous estrogen treatment for both male and female patients

J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2020;23(1):75-85. doi: 10.18433/jpps31069.


The presented work summarizes the results of studies underlining the crucial role of estrogen receptor (ER) signaling in both innate and adaptive immune responses as well as in tissue repairing processes during respiratory virus infection. Experimental studies justify that among respiratory virus infected mice, a weaker ER signaling leads to increased morbidity and mortality in both males and females. In animal experiments, estrogen treatment silences the inflammatory reactions and decreases virus titers leading to improved survival rate; it seems to be an ideal prevention and therapy against COVID-19. We should overcome the widespread reluctance to estrogen therapy as we have a unique estrogen formula; conjugated estrogens, or conjugated equine estrogens available under the brand name of Premarin deriving from natural sources. Premarin can exert similar ER upregulative and gene repairing power like endogenous estrogen without any risk for adverse reactions. Premarin is capable of stopping the COVID-19 pandemic.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Age Factors
  • Animals
  • Betacoronavirus
  • COVID-19
  • Comorbidity
  • Coronavirus Infections / drug therapy*
  • Coronavirus Infections / mortality
  • Estrogens / therapeutic use*
  • Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / drug therapy*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / mortality
  • Receptors, Estrogen / physiology*
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Sex Factors
  • Signal Transduction
  • Up-Regulation / drug effects


  • Estrogens
  • Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)
  • Receptors, Estrogen

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19 drug treatment