Survival of Human Norovirus Surrogates in Water upon Exposure to Thermal and Non-Thermal Antiviral Treatments

Viruses. 2020 Apr 19;12(4):461. doi: 10.3390/v12040461.


Human noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide and disease outbreaks have been linked to contaminated surface waters as well as to produce consumption. Noroviruses are extremely stable in water and their presence is being detected with increasing frequency, yet there are no viable methods for reducing norovirus contamination in environmental water. Despite this, there is little knowledge regarding the physical and chemical factors that influence the environmental persistence of this pathogen. This study evaluated the impact of common chemical and physical properties of surface water on the stability of murine norovirus and examined the effect of food-safe chitosan microparticles on infectivity of two human norovirus surrogates. While chemical additives had a minor impact on virus survival, chitosan microparticles significantly reduced infectious titers of both murine norovirus and MS2 bacteriophage.

Keywords: antiviral treatment; chitosan microparticles; disinfection; enteric virus; food safety; norovirus; public health; surface water; surrogates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Biomarkers
  • Caliciviridae Infections / diagnosis
  • Caliciviridae Infections / drug therapy
  • Caliciviridae Infections / virology*
  • Cell Line
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Drug Development
  • Gastroenteritis / diagnosis
  • Gastroenteritis / drug therapy
  • Gastroenteritis / virology*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Microbial Viability / drug effects
  • Norovirus / drug effects*
  • Norovirus / physiology*
  • Temperature
  • Viral Plaque Assay


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Biomarkers