Association of Proteins Modulating Immune Response and Insulin Clearance During Gestation with Antenatal Complications in Patients with Gestational or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Cells. 2020 Apr 21;9(4):1032. doi: 10.3390/cells9041032.


Background: The purpose of the study is to establish and quantitatively assess protein markers and their combination in association with insulin uptake that may be have value for early prospective recognition of diabetic fetopathy (DF) as a complication in patients with diabetes mellitus during gestation.

Methods: Proteomic surveying and accurate quantitative measurement of selected proteins from plasma samples collected from the patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who gave birth of either healthy or affected by maternal diabetes newborns was performed using mass spectrometry.

Results: We determined and quantitatively measured several proteins, including CRP, CEACAM1, CNDP1 and Ig-family that were significantly differed in patients that gave birth of newborns with signs of DF. We found that patients with newborns associated with DF are characterized by significantly decreased CEACAM1 (113.18 ± 16.23 ng/mL and 81.09 ± 10.54 ng/mL in GDM and T2DM, p < 0.005) in contrast to control group (515.6 ± 72.14 ng/mL, p < 0.005). On the contrary, the concentration of CNDP1 was increased in DF-associated groups and attained 49.3 ± 5.18 ng/mL and 37.7 ± 3.34 ng/mL (p < 0.005) in GDM and T2DM groups, respectively. Among other proteins, dramatically decreased concentration of IgG4 and IgA2 subclasses of immunoglobulins were noticed.

Conclusion: The combination of the measured markers may assist (AUC = 0.893 (CI 95%, 0.785-0.980) in establishing the clinical finding of the developing DF especially in patients with GDM who are at the highest risk of chronic insulin resistance.

Keywords: carnosine; diabetic fetopathy; gestational diabetes mellitus; immunoglobulins; insulin resistance; type 2 diabetes mellitus.