The complex polymicrobial composition of human gut microbiota plays a key role in health and disease. Lachnospiraceae belong to the core of gut microbiota, colonizing the intestinal lumen from birth and increasing, in terms of species richness and their relative abundances during the host's life. Although, members of Lachnospiraceae are among the main producers of short-chain fatty acids, different taxa of Lachnospiraceae are also associated with different intra- and extraintestinal diseases. Their impact on the host physiology is often inconsistent across different studies. Here, we discuss changes in Lachnospiraceae abundances according to health and disease. With the aim of harnessing Lachnospiraceae to promote human health, we also analyze how nutrients from the host diet can influence their growth and how their metabolites can, in turn, influence host physiology.
Keywords: Lachnospiraceae; disease; gut microbial metabolites; gut microbial pathways; gut microbiota; health.