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. 2020;146:29-56.
doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2020.02.002. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Friend or Foe? Lactobacillus in the Context of Autoimmune Disease

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Friend or Foe? Lactobacillus in the Context of Autoimmune Disease

Rebecca L Fine et al. Adv Immunol. .

Abstract

Over the last decade, the interplay between the gut microbiota, the consortium of intestinal microbes that colonizes intestinal mucosal barriers, and its host immune system has been increasingly better understood. Disruption of the delicate balance between beneficial and pathogenic commensals, known as dysbiosis, contributes to a variety of chronic immunologic and metabolic diseases. Complicating this paradigm are bacterial strains that can operate paradoxically both as instigators and attenuators of inflammatory responses, depending on host background. Here, we review the role of several strains in the genus Lactobacillus within the context of autoimmune and other chronic disorders with a predominant focus on L. reuteri. While strains within this species have been shown to provide immune health benefits, they have also been demonstrated to act as a pathobiont in autoimmune-prone hosts. Beneficial functions in healthy hosts include competing with pathogenic microbes, promoting regulatory T cell development, and protecting the integrity of the gut barrier. On the other hand, certain strains can also break through a dysfunctional gut barrier, colonize internal tissues such as the spleen or liver and promote inflammatory responses in host tissues that lead to autoimmune disease. This review summarizes the manifold roles that these commensals play in the context of health and disease.

Keywords: Autoimmunity; Dysbiosis; E. gallinarum; Endosomal TLR7; Gut microbiome; L. johnsonii; L. reuteri; Lactobacillus; P. copri; R. intestinalis; Resistant starch diet; Translocation; Type I interferon.

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