Protective Potential of Ginkgo biloba Against an ADHD-like Condition

Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2021;14(2):200-209. doi: 10.2174/1874467213666200424152454.


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder commonly found in children, which is recognized by hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. It is known that the pathophysiology of ADHD is associated with neurobiological dysfunction. Although psychostimulants are recognized as the therapeutic drugs of choice for ADHD patients, the side effects might be of great concern. Ginkgo biloba is a promising herbal, complementary supplement that may modulate the neuronal system in an ADHD-like condition. The beneficial effect of Ginkgo biloba on ADHD-like symptoms may be related to the modulation of the system by novel molecular mechanisms. Ginkgo biloba is known to modulate dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine signaling. Flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones are the two major phytochemical components present in the Ginkgo biloba preparations, which can exhibit antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. The pharmacological mechanisms of the phytochemical components may also contribute to the neuroprotective activity of Ginkgo biloba. In this review, we have summarized recent findings on the potential of various Ginkgo biloba preparations to treat ADHD-like symptoms. In addition, we have discussed the pharmacological mechanisms mediated by Ginkgo biloba against an ADHD-like condition.

Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; EGb 761; Ginkgo biloba; antioxidant potential; neuroprotection; neurotransmitter.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / chemistry*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / drug therapy*
  • Dopamine / metabolism
  • Drug Discovery
  • Flavonoids / chemistry
  • Ginkgo biloba / chemistry*
  • Glycosides / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Neuroprotective Agents / chemistry*
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology
  • Norepinephrine / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Serotonin / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Terpenes / chemistry


  • Antioxidants
  • Flavonoids
  • Glycosides
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • Terpenes
  • Ginkgo biloba extract
  • Serotonin
  • Dopamine
  • Norepinephrine