Antibodies to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus in Thai Children After Two-Dose Vaccination at 9 Months and 2.5 Years: A Longitudinal Study

Vaccine. 2020 May 19;38(24):4016-4023. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.013. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Abstract

Introduction: Thailand changed the schedule of childhood measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination in 2014, moving the second dose from the age of 6 years to 2.5 years. There are currently no data on antibody responses to the MMR vaccine since this recommendation.

Material and methods: We investigated antibody responses in a cohort of children who received two doses of MMR vaccine at the ages of 9 months and 2.5 years that was originally established to evaluate antibody levels to Bordetella pertussis antigens (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT02408926). Infants were born to mothers who previously received tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine at 27-36 weeks of gestation. Anti-measles, -mumps, and -rubella virus IgG levels were measured at birth (cord blood) and the ages of 2 and 7 months (before the first MMR vaccination); 18 and 24 months (9 and 15 months, respectively, after the first dose); and 36 months (6 months after the second dose) using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.

Results: At 7 months of age, 96.2%, 99.6%, and 98.8% of infants had no protection against measles, mumps, and rubella, respectively. Levels of antibody against all three antigens increased significantly after the first but not the second dose. At 6 months after two-dose vaccination, 97.4%, 84.8%, and 78.7% of children remained seroprotected against measles, mumps, and rubella, respectively.

Conclusions: Maternally derived antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella virus disappeared by the age of 7 months in Thai children. Two-dose MMR vaccination at 9 months and 2.5 years of age induced robust immune responses against these viruses.

Keywords: Childhood vaccination; Measles–mumps–rubella (MMR); Seroprotection; Two-dose vaccine.

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02408926