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. 2020 Apr 24;injuryprev-2019-043494.
doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494. Online ahead of print.

Global Injury Morbidity and Mortality From 1990 to 2017: Results From the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

Spencer L James  1 Chris D Castle  2 Zachary V Dingels  2 Jack T Fox  2 Erin B Hamilton  2 Zichen Liu  2 Nicholas L S Roberts  2 Dillon O Sylte  2 Nathaniel J Henry  2 Kate E LeGrand  2 Ahmed Abdelalim  3 Amir Abdoli  4 Ibrahim Abdollahpour  5 Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader  6 Aidin Abedi  7 Akine Eshete Abosetugn  8 Abdelrahman I Abushouk  9 Oladimeji M Adebayo  10 Marcela Agudelo-Botero  11 Tauseef Ahmad  12   13 Rushdia Ahmed  14   15 Muktar Beshir Ahmed  16 Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour  17 Fares Alahdab  18 Genet Melak Alamene  19 Fahad Mashhour Alanezi  20 Animut Alebel  21 Niguse Meles Alema  22 Suliman A Alghnam  23 Samar Al-Hajj  24   25 Beriwan Abdulqadir Ali  26   27 Saqib Ali  28 Mahtab Alikhani  29 Cyrus Alinia  30 Vahid Alipour  31   32 Syed Mohamed Aljunid  33   34 Amir Almasi-Hashiani  35 Nihad A Almasri  36 Khalid Altirkawi  37 Yasser Sami Abdeldayem Amer  38   39 Saeed Amini  40 Arianna Maever Loreche Amit  41   42 Catalina Liliana Andrei  43 Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam  44 Carl Abelardo T Antonio  45   46 Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah  47   48 Jalal Arabloo  31 Morteza Arab-Zozani  49 Zohreh Arefi  50 Olatunde Aremu  51 Filippo Ariani  52 Amit Arora  53   54 Malke Asaad  55 Babak Asghari  56 Nefsu Awoke  57 Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla  58   59 Getinet Ayano  60 Martin Amogre Ayanore  61 Samad Azari  31 Ghasem Azarian  62 Alaa Badawi  63   64 Ashish D Badiye  65 Eleni Bagli  66   67 Atif Amin Baig  68   69 Mohan Bairwa  70   71 Ahad Bakhtiari  72 Arun Balachandran  73   74 Maciej Banach  75   76 Srikanta K Banerjee  77 Palash Chandra Banik  78 Amrit Banstola  79 Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo  80 Till Winfried Bärnighausen  81   82 Lope H Barrero  83 Akbar Barzegar  84 Mohsen Bayati  85 Bayisa Abdissa Baye  86 Neeraj Bedi  87   88 Masoud Behzadifar  89 Tariku Tesfaye Bekuma  90 Habte Belete  91 Corina Benjet  92 Derrick A Bennett  93 Isabela M Bensenor  94 Kidanemaryam Berhe  95 Pankaj Bhardwaj  96   97 Anusha Ganapati Bhat  98 Krittika Bhattacharyya  99   100 Sadia Bibi  101 Ali Bijani  102 Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed  103   104 Guilherme Borges  92 Antonio Maria Borzì  105 Soufiane Boufous  106 Alexandra Brazinova  107 Nikolay Ivanovich Briko  108 Shyam S Budhathoki  109 Josip Car  110   111 Rosario Cárdenas  112 Félix Carvalho  113 João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia  114 Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela  115   116 Giulio Castelpietra  117   118 Ferrán Catalá-López  119   120 Ester Cerin  121   122 Joht S Chandan  123 Wagaye Fentahun Chanie  124 Soosanna Kumary Chattu  125 Vijay Kumar Chattu  126 Irini Chatziralli  127   128 Neha Chaudhary  129   130 Daniel Youngwhan Cho  131 Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury  132   133 Dinh-Toi Chu  134 Samantha M Colquhoun  135 Maria-Magdalena Constantin  136   137 Vera M Costa  113 Giovanni Damiani  138   139 Ahmad Daryani  140 Claudio Alberto Dávila-Cervantes  141 Feleke Mekonnen Demeke  142 Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis  143   144 Gebre Teklemariam Demoz  145   146 Desalegn Getnet Demsie  22 Afshin Derakhshani  147 Kebede Deribe  148   149 Rupak Desai  150 Mostafa Dianati Nasab  151 Diana Dias da Silva  152 Zahra Sadat Dibaji Forooshani  153 Kerrie E Doyle  154 Tim Robert Driscoll  155 Eleonora Dubljanin  156 Bereket Duko Adema  157   158 Arielle Wilder Eagan  159   160 Aziz Eftekhari  161   162 Elham Ehsani-Chimeh  163 Maysaa El Sayed Zaki  164 Demelash Abewa Elemineh  165 Shaimaa I El-Jaafary  3 Ziad El-Khatib  166   167 Christian Lycke Ellingsen  168   169 Mohammad Hassan Emamian  170 Daniel Adane Endalew  171 Sharareh Eskandarieh  172 Pawan Sirwan Faris  173   174 Andre Faro  175 Farshad Farzadfar  176 Yousef Fatahi  177 Wubalem Fekadu  91   178 Tomas Y Ferede  179 Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad  180   181 Eduarda Fernandes  182 Pietro Ferrara  183 Garumma Tolu Feyissa  184 Irina Filip  185   186 Florian Fischer  187 Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan  188 Masoud Foroutan  189 Joel Msafiri Francis  190 Richard Charles Franklin  191   192 Takeshi Fukumoto  193   194 Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam  195 Abadi Kahsu Gebre  196 Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin  197 Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel  198   199 Berhe Gebremichael  200 Getnet Azeze Gedefaw  201   202 Birhanu Geta  203 Mansour Ghafourifard  204 Farhad Ghamari  205 Ahmad Ghashghaee  206 Asadollah Gholamian  207   208 Tiffany K Gill  209 Alessandra C Goulart  94   210 Ayman Grada  211 Michal Grivna  212 Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen Gubari  213 Rafael Alves Guimarães  214 Yuming Guo  215   216 Gaurav Gupta  217 Juanita A Haagsma  218 Nima Hafezi-Nejad  219   220 Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli  221 Brian James Hall  222 Randah R Hamadeh  223 Samer Hamidi  224 Josep Maria Haro  225   226 Md Mehedi Hasan  227 Amir Hasanzadeh  228   229 Soheil Hassanipour  230 Hadi Hassankhani  231   232 Hamid Yimam Hassen  233   234 Rasmus Havmoeller  235 Khezar Hayat  236   237 Delia Hendrie  60 Fatemeh Heydarpour  238 Martha Híjar  239   240 Hung Chak Ho  241 Chi Linh Hoang  242 Michael K Hole  243 Ramesh Holla  244 Naznin Hossain  245   246 Mehdi Hosseinzadeh  247   248 Sorin Hostiuc  249   250 Guoqing Hu  251 Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye  252 Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi  253 Irena Ilic  156 Milena D Ilic  254 Leeberk Raja Inbaraj  255 Endang Indriasih  256 Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani  257 Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam  258   259 M Mofizul Islam  260 Rebecca Q Ivers  261 Kathryn H Jacobsen  262 Mohammad Ali Jahani  263 Nader Jahanmehr  264   265 Mihajlo Jakovljevic  266 Farzad Jalilian  267 Sudha Jayaraman  268 Achala Upendra Jayatilleke  269   270 Ravi Prakash Jha  271 Yetunde O John-Akinola  252 Jost B Jonas  272   273 Nitin Joseph  274 Farahnaz Joukar  230 Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak  275 Suresh Banayya Jungari  276 Mikk Jürisson  277 Ali Kabir  278 Rajendra Kadel  279 Amaha Kahsay  95 Leila R Kalankesh  280 Rohollah Kalhor  281   282 Teshome Abegaz Kamil  283 Tanuj Kanchan  284 Neeti Kapoor  65 Manoochehr Karami  285 Amir Kasaeian  286   287 Hagazi Gebremedhin Kassaye  22 Taras Kavetskyy  288   289 Hafte Kahsay Kebede  290 Peter Njenga Keiyoro  291 Abraham Getachew Kelbore  292 Bayew Kelkay  293 Yousef Saleh Khader  294 Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie  295 Nauman Khalid  296 Ibrahim A Khalil  297 Rovshan Khalilov  298 Mohammad Khammarnia  299 Ejaz Ahmad Khan  300 Maseer Khan  301 Tripti Khanna  302   303 Habibolah Khazaie  304 Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani  305 Roba Khundkar  306 Daniel N Kiirithio  307 Young-Eun Kim  308 Daniel Kim  309 Yun Jin Kim  310 Adnan Kisa  311 Sezer Kisa  312 Hamidreza Komaki  313   314 Shivakumar K M Kondlahalli  315 Vladimir Andreevich Korshunov  108 Ai Koyanagi  316   317 Moritz U G Kraemer  318   319 Kewal Krishan  320 Burcu Kucuk Bicer  321   322 Nuworza Kugbey  323   324 Vivek Kumar  325 Nithin Kumar  274 G Anil Kumar  326 Manasi Kumar  327   328 Girikumar Kumaresh  329 Om P Kurmi  328   330 Oluwatosin Kuti  331 Carlo La Vecchia  332 Faris Hasan Lami  333 Prabhat Lamichhane  334 Justin J Lang  335 Van C Lansingh  336   337 Dennis Odai Laryea  338 Savita Lasrado  339 Arman Latifi  340 Paolo Lauriola  341 Janet L Leasher  342 Shaun Wen Huey Lee  343   344 Tsegaye Lolaso Lenjebo  345 Miriam Levi  52   346 Shanshan Li  215 Shai Linn  347 Xuefeng Liu  348 Alan D Lopez  2   349   350 Paulo A Lotufo  351 Raimundas Lunevicius  352   353 Ronan A Lyons  354 Mohammed Madadin  355 Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek  356 Narayan Bahadur Mahotra  357 Marek Majdan  358 Azeem Majeed  359 Jeadran N Malagon-Rojas  360   361 Venkatesh Maled  362   363 Reza Malekzadeh  364   365 Deborah Carvalho Malta  366 Navid Manafi  367   368 Amir Manafi  369 Ana-Laura Manda  370 Narayana Manjunatha  371 Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei  230 Borhan Mansouri  372 Mohammad Ali Mansournia  373 Joemer C Maravilla  374 Lyn M March  375 Amanda J Mason-Jones  376 Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi  377 Benjamin Ballard Massenburg  131 Pallab K Maulik  378   379 Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles  380 Addisu Melese  142 Zeleke Aschalew Melketsedik  381 Peter T N Memiah  382 Walter Mendoza  383 Ritesh G Menezes  384 Meresa Berwo Mengesha  385 Melkamu Merid Mengesha  386 Tuomo J Meretoja  387   388 Atte Meretoja  389   390 Hayimro Edemealem Merie  165 Tomislav Mestrovic  391   392 Bartosz Miazgowski  393 Tomasz Miazgowski  394 Ted R Miller  60   395 G K Mini  396   397 Andreea Mirica  398   399 Erkin M Mirrakhimov  400   401 Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh  267 Prasanna Mithra  274 Babak Moazen  402   403 Masoud Moghadaszadeh  404   405 Efat Mohamadi  406 Yousef Mohammad  407 Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad  408   409 Aso Mohammad Darwesh  410 Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji  411 Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani  412 Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani  413 Reza Mohammadpourhodki  414 Shafiu Mohammed  81   415 Jemal Abdu Mohammed  416 Farnam Mohebi  176   417 Mariam Molokhia  418 Lorenzo Monasta  419 Yoshan Moodley  420 Mahmood Moosazadeh  421 Masoud Moradi  422 Ghobad Moradi  423   424 Maziar Moradi-Lakeh  425 Farhad Moradpour  423 Lidia Morawska  426 Ilais Moreno Velásquez  427 Naho Morisaki  428 Shane Douglas Morrison  131 Tilahun Belete Mossie  91 Atalay Goshu Muluneh  429 Srinivas Murthy  430 Kamarul Imran Musa  431 Ghulam Mustafa  432   433 Ashraf F Nabhan  434   435 Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan  436   437 Gurudatta Naik  438 Mukhammad David Naimzada  439   440 Farid Najafi  441 Vinay Nangia  442 Bruno Ramos Nascimento  443 Morteza Naserbakht  425   444 Vinod Nayak  445 Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe  446 Ionut Negoi  447   448 Josephine W Ngunjiri  449 Cuong Tat Nguyen  450 Huong Lan Thi Nguyen  450 Rajan Nikbakhsh  451   452 Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum  453   454 Chukwudi A Nnaji  446   455 Peter S Nyasulu  456 Felix Akpojene Ogbo  113 Onome Bright Oghenetega  457 In-Hwan Oh  458 Emmanuel Wandera Okunga  459 Andrew T Olagunju  460   461 Tinuke O Olagunju  462 Ahmed Omar Bali  463 Obinna E Onwujekwe  464 Kwaku Oppong Asante  465   466 Heather M Orpana  467   468 Erika Ota  469 Nikita Otstavnov  439   470 Stanislav S Otstavnov  439   471 Mahesh P A  472 Jagadish Rao Padubidri  473 Smita Pakhale  474 Keyvan Pakshir  475 Songhomitra Panda-Jonas  476 Eun-Kee Park  477 Sangram Kishor Patel  478   479 Ashish Pathak  166   480 Sanghamitra Pati  481 George C Patton  482   483 Kebreab Paulos  484 Amy E Peden  192   485 Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito  486 Jeevan Pereira  487 Hai Quang Pham  450 Michael R Phillips  488   489 Marina Pinheiro  490 Roman V Polibin  491 Suzanne Polinder  218 Hossein Poustchi  364 Swayam Prakash  492 Dimas Ria Angga Pribadi  493 Parul Puri  494 Zahiruddin Quazi Syed  97 Mohammad Rabiee  495 Navid Rabiee  496 Amir Radfar  497   498 Anwar Rafay  499 Ata Rafiee  500 Alireza Rafiei  501   502 Fakher Rahim  503   504 Siavash Rahimi  505 Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar  506 Muhammad Aziz Rahman  507   508 Ali Rajabpour-Sanati  509 Fatemeh Rajati  422 Ivo Rakovac  510 Kavitha Ranganathan  511 Sowmya J Rao  512 Vahid Rashedi  513 Prateek Rastogi  514 Priya Rathi  515 Salman Rawaf  359   516 Lal Rawal  517 Reza Rawassizadeh  518 Vishnu Renjith  519 Andre M N Renzaho  520   521 Serge Resnikoff  522 Aziz Rezapour  523 Ana Isabel Ribeiro  524 Jennifer Rickard  525   526 Carlos Miguel Rios González  527   528 Luca Ronfani  419 Gholamreza Roshandel  364   529 Anas M Saad  530 Yogesh Damodar Sabde  531 Siamak Sabour  532 Basema Saddik  533 Saeed Safari  534 Roya Safari-Faramani  535 Hamid Safarpour  536 Mahdi Safdarian  506   537 S Mohammad Sajadi  538 Payman Salamati  506 Farkhonde Salehi  539 Saleh Salehi Zahabi  540   541 Marwa R Rashad Salem  542 Hosni Salem  543 Omar Salman  544   545 Inbal Salz  546 Abdallah M Samy  547 Juan Sanabria  548   549 Lidia Sanchez Riera  550   551 Milena M Santric Milicevic  552   553 Abdur Razzaque Sarker  554 Arash Sarveazad  555 Brijesh Sathian  556   557 Monika Sawhney  558 Susan M Sawyer  559   560 Sonia Saxena  561 Mehdi Sayyah  562 David C Schwebel  563 Soraya Seedat  564 Subramanian Senthilkumaran  565 Sadaf G Sepanlou  364   365 Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi  566 Feng Sha  567 Faramarz Shaahmadi  568 Saeed Shahabi  569 Masood Ali Shaikh  570 Mehran Shams-Beyranvand  571 Morteza Shamsizadeh  572 Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini  506 Hamid Sharifi  573 Aziz Sheikh  574   575 Mika Shigematsu  576 Jae Il Shin  577   578 Rahman Shiri  579 Soraya Siabani  580   581 Inga Dora Sigfusdottir  582   583 Pankaj Kumar Singh  584 Jasvinder A Singh  585   586 Dhirendra Narain Sinha  587   588 Catalin-Gabriel Smarandache  589   590 Emma U R Smith  591   592 Amin Soheili  593   594 Bija Soleymani  238 Ali Reza Soltanian  595 Joan B Soriano  596   597 Muluken Bekele Sorrie  598 Ireneous N Soyiri  599   600 Dan J Stein  601   602 Mark A Stokes  603 Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan  604 Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria  605 Bryan L Sykes  606 Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos  607   608 Karen M Tabb  609 Biruk Wogayehu Taddele  610 Degena Bahrey Tadesse  198   611 Animut Tagele Tamiru  612 Ingan Ukur Tarigan  256 Yonatal Mesfin Tefera  613   614 Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi  425   615 Merhawi Gebremedhin Tekle  200 Gebretsadkan Hintsa Tekulu  616 Ayenew Kassie Tesema  617 Berhe Etsay Tesfay  618 Rekha Thapar  274 Asres Bedaso Tilahune  619 Kenean Getaneh Tlaye  143 Hamid Reza Tohidinik  373   573 Roman Topor-Madry  620   621 Bach Xuan Tran  622 Khanh Bao Tran  623   624 Jaya Prasad Tripathy  625 Alexander C Tsai  626   627 Lorainne Tudor Car  628 Saif Ullah  629 Irfan Ullah  630   631 Maida Umar  632 Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan  274 Era Upadhyay  633 Olalekan A Uthman  634 Pascual R Valdez  635   636 Tommi Juhani Vasankari  637 Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian  638   639 Francesco S Violante  640   641 Vasily Vlassov  642 Yasir Waheed  643 Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel  198 Andrea Werdecker  644   645 Taweewat Wiangkham  646 Haileab Fekadu Wolde  429 Dawit Habte Woldeyes  647 Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash  648   649 Temesgen Gebeyehu Wondmeneh  416 Adam Belay Wondmieneh  197   650 Ai-Min Wu  651 Rajaram Yadav  494 Ali Yadollahpour  652 Yuichiro Yano  653 Sanni Yaya  654 Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi  655   656 Paul Yip  657   658 Engida Yisma  659 Naohiro Yonemoto  660 Seok-Jun Yoon  308 Yoosik Youm  661 Mustafa Z Younis  662   663 Zabihollah Yousefi  664   665 Yong Yu  666 Chuanhua Yu  667   668 Hasan Yusefzadeh  30 Telma Zahirian Moghadam  31   669 Zoubida Zaidi  670 Sojib Bin Zaman  132   671 Mohammad Zamani  672 Maryam Zamanian  35 Hamed Zandian  669   673 Ahmad Zarei  674 Fatemeh Zare  675 Zhi-Jiang Zhang  676 Yunquan Zhang  677   678 Sanjay Zodpey  679 Lalit Dandona  2   326   350 Rakhi Dandona  2   326 Louisa Degenhardt  2   680 Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne  2   350   681 Simon I Hay  2   350 Ali H Mokdad  2   350 Robert C Reiner Jr  2   350 Benn Sartorius  350   682 Theo Vos  2   350
Affiliations

Global Injury Morbidity and Mortality From 1990 to 2017: Results From the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

Spencer L James et al. Inj Prev. .

Abstract

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.

Keywords: burden of disease; descriptive epidemiology; global.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: Dr. James reports grants from Sanofi Pasteur, outside the submitted work. Dr. Driscoll reports grants from World Health Organization, during the conduct of the study. Dr. Ivers reports grants from National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, during the conduct of the study. Dr. Jozwiak reports personal fees from TEVA, personal fees from ALAB, personal fees from BOEHRINGER INGELHEIM, personal fees from SYNEXUS, non-financial support from SERVIER, non-financial support from MICROLIFE, non-financial support from MEDICOVER, outside the submitted work. Dr. Rakovac reports grants from World Health Organization, during the conduct of the study. Dr Shariful Islam is funded by National Heart Foundation of Australia and Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University. Dr. Sheikh reports grants from Health Data Research UK, outside the submitted work. Dr. Singh reports personal fees from Crealta/Horizon, Medisys, Fidia, UBM LLC, Trio health, Medscape, WebMD, Clinical Care options, Clearview healthcare partners, Putnam associates, Spherix, Practice Point communications, the National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology, and Speaker’s bureau of Simply Speaking, owns stock options in Amarin pharmaceuticals and Viking pharmaceuticals, serves on the steering committee of OMERACT, an international organization that develops measures for clinical trials and receives arm’s length funding from 12 pharmaceutical companies, serves on the FDA Arthritis Advisory Committee, is a member of the Veterans Affairs Rheumatology Field Advisory Committee, and is the editor and the Director of the UAB Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group Satellite Center on Network Meta-analysis, outside the submitted work. Dr. Stein reports personal fees from Lundbeck, personal fees from Sun, outside the submitted work. Dr. Degenhardt reports grants from Indivior, Seqirus, Reckitt Benckiser, outside the submitted work.

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