Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) characterized by progressive degeneration of the central nervous system, and few medications are available to halt the progression of AD and PD. In the present study, an engineered strain MG136-pMG36e-GLP-1 was used to evaluate its neuroprotective effect on AD and PD mice, via the probiotics effects of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and the constantly produced Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by the engineered strain. Our results indicated that oral administration of MG136-pMG36e-GLP-1 significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory impairment and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced motor dysfunction through the toll-like receptor4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) and protein kinase B (AKT)/Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) signaling pathway. High-throughput sequencing results showed that MG1363-pMG36e-GLP-1 reduced the abundance of the pathogens Enterococcus, Proteus, and increased the abundance of the probiotics Akkermansia muciniphila. These results suggest that the engineered strain may be a new intervention for treating AD and PD by reducing the occurrence of neuroinflammation.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease (AD); Engineered bacteria; Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1); High-throughput sequencing; MG1363-pMG36e-GLP-1; Neuroinflammation; Parkinson’s disease (PD).