Ching-I Peng, the most prolific and internationally recognized Taiwanese plant taxonomist of his generation, passed away on May 1, 2018. Dr. Peng was an eminent worker on the taxonomy of East Asian plants and the genus Ludwigia, and the foremost expert on Asian Begonia. He served as associate editor, co-editor in chief, and editor-in-chief of Botanical Studies and its predecessor Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica during the period 1992-2016. He gathered over 25,000 plant specimens, name 121 plant taxa, and has left a remarkable legacy of literature, collaborations and collections. This article summarizes Dr. Peng's academic career and commemorates his enduring contribution.