Background: Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NP-C) is a rare, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and premature death. We report data at closure of the NPC Registry that describes the natural history, disease course and treatment experience of NP-C patients in a real-world setting.
Methods: The NPC Registry was a prospective observational cohort study that ran between September 2009 and October 2017. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of NP-C were enrolled regardless of treatment status. All patients underwent clinical assessments and medical care as determined by their physicians; data were collected through a secure internet-based portal.
Results: At closure on October 19, 2017, 472 patients from 22 countries were enrolled in the NPC Registry. Mean (standard deviation) age at enrollment was 21.2 (15.0) years, and 51.9% of patients were male. First neurological symptom onset occurred during the early-infantile (< 2 years), late-infantile (2 to < 6 years), juvenile (6 to < 15 years), or adolescent/adult (≥ 15 years) periods in 13.5, 25.6, 31.8, and 29.1% of cases, respectively. The most frequent neurological manifestations prior to enrollment included ataxia (67.9%), vertical supranuclear gaze palsy (67.4%), dysarthria (64.7%), cognitive impairment (62.7%), dysphagia (49.1%), and dystonia (40.2%). During infancy, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were frequent (n = 199/398 [50%] and n = 147/397 [37.0%], respectively) and persisted in most affected patients. Of the 472 enrolled patients, 241 were continuously treated with miglustat during the NPC Registry observation period, of whom 172 of these 241 patients were treated continuously for ≥12 months. A composite disability score that assesses impairment of ambulation, manipulation, language, and swallowing was highest in the early-infantile population and lowest in the adolescent/adult population. Among the continuous miglustat therapy population, 70.5% of patients had improved or had stable disease (at least 3 of the 4 domains having a decreased or unchanged score between enrollment and last follow-up). The NPC Registry did not identify any new safety signals associated with miglustat therapy.
Conclusions: The profiles of clinical manifestations in the final NPC Registry dataset agreed with previous clinical descriptions. Miglustat therapy was associated with a stabilization of neurological manifestations in most patients. The safety and tolerability of miglustat therapy was consistent with previous reports.
Keywords: Disease course; Miglustat; NPC disease registry; Natural history; Neurological symptoms; Niemann-Pick disease type C; Safety; Tolerability; Treatment evaluation.