Association between Passive Smoking from the Mother and Pediatric Crohn's Disease: A Japanese Multicenter Study

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Apr 23;17(8):2926. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17082926.


Smoking is a risk factor for adult-onset Crohn's disease (CD). Although passive smoking from family members is a major concern, especially in pediatric CD, the number of existing epidemiological studies is limited. This multicenter case-control study aimed to assess the effects of familial smoking on pediatric CD. We examined 22 pediatric CD cases and 135 controls. The subjects' mothers were given a self-administered questionnaire about family smoking before disease onset in the CD group or the corresponding period in the control group. Univariable logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), whereas dose-response relationship analyses were performed for more in-depth evaluations. Univariable analyses indicated that passive smoking from the mother (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 0.61-7.10) was not a significant, but a candidate risk factor for developing pediatric CD. In contrast, the dose-response relationship analyses revealed that passive smoking from the mother (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31) was significantly associated with pediatric CD. Therefore, passive smoking from the mother may be predominantly associated with the development of pediatric CD. Further follow-up studies comprising environmental measurements of passive smoking exposure doses and genetic factors interaction analysis are necessary.

Keywords: dose-response relationship; epidemiology; maternal smoking; passive smoking; pediatric Crohn’s disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Crohn Disease / epidemiology*
  • Crohn Disease / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Mothers*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects*
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / statistics & numerical data


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution