Wound repair of cell membrane is a vital physiological phenomenon. We examined wound repair in Dictyostelium cells by using a laserporation, which we recently invented. We examined the influx of fluorescent dyes from the external medium and monitored the cytosolic Ca2+ after wounding. The influx of Ca2+ through the wound pore was essential for wound repair. Annexin and ESCRT components accumulated at the wound site upon wounding as previously described in animal cells, but these were not essential for wound repair in Dictyostelium cells. We discovered that calmodulin accumulated at the wound site upon wounding, which was essential for wound repair. The membrane accumulated at the wound site to plug the wound pore by two-steps, depending on Ca2+ influx and calmodulin. From several lines of evidence, the membrane plug was derived from de novo generated vesicles at the wound site. Actin filaments also accumulated at the wound site, depending on Ca2+ influx and calmodulin. Actin accumulation was essential for wound repair, but microtubules were not essential. A molecular mechanism of wound repair will be discussed.
Keywords: Dictyostelium; actin; calcium ion; calmodulin; cell membrane; wound repair.