Current approaches for nanomaterial delivery in plants are unable to target specific subcellular compartments with high precision, limiting our ability to engineer plant function. We demonstrate a nanoscale platform that targets and delivers nanomaterials with biochemicals to plant photosynthetic organelles (chloroplasts) using a guiding peptide recognition motif. Quantum dot (QD) fluorescence emission in a low background window allows confocal microscopy imaging and quantitative detection by elemental analysis in plant cells and organelles. QD functionalization with β-cyclodextrin molecular baskets enables loading and delivery of diverse chemicals, and nanoparticle coating with a rationally designed and conserved guiding peptide targets their delivery to chloroplasts. Peptide biorecognition provides high delivery efficiency and specificity of QD with chemical cargoes to chloroplasts in plant cells in vivo (74.6 ± 10.8%) and more specific tunable changes of chloroplast redox function than chemicals alone. Targeted delivery of nanomaterials with chemical cargoes guided by biorecognition motifs has a broad range of nanotechnology applications in plant biology and bioengineering, nanoparticle-plant interactions, and nano-enabled agriculture.