Insulin and glucagon secretions were studied during oral glucose tolerance testing and arginine infusion in 13 patients with cystic fibrosis. Two groups of patients were identified; Group I (N=6) whose OGTT was entirely normal and Group II (N=7) who had some abnormality in glucose during OGTT. In each group basal glucagon concentrations were normal and supressed appropriately (p less than 0.05) after glucose; insulin responses were attenuated and the peak responses delayed. During arginine stimulation, insulin secretion was impaired in each group. However, glucagon secretion was diminished only in Group II. Thus, insulinopenia was found in both groups and hyperglucagonemia was not found as a contributory factor to the hyperglycemia in Group II.