Biological Activities of Rhamnan Sulfate Extract from the Green Algae Monostroma nitidum (Hitoegusa)

Mar Drugs. 2020 Apr 24;18(4):228. doi: 10.3390/md18040228.


Monostroma nitidum is a green single-cell layered algae that grows on the southwest coast of Japan. It is often used for salad ingredients, boiled tsukudani, soups, etc., due to its health benefits. M. nitidum is composed of many cell aggregates, and the various substances that fill the intercellular space are dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. Rhamnan sulfate (RS), a sulfated polysaccharide, is main the component of the fiber extracted from M. nitidum. Recently, some biological properties of RS have been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies that probably protect human subjects from viruses and ameliorate vascular dysfunction caused by metabolic disorders, especially lifestyle-related diseases. In this review, we focus on the antithrombotic effects of RS and introduce its antiviral and other biological activities.

Keywords: Monostroma nitidum; antithrombotic effect; antivirus; rhamnan sulfate; vascular endothelium dysfunction.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents / isolation & purification
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology
  • Chlorophyta / chemistry*
  • Deoxy Sugars / isolation & purification
  • Deoxy Sugars / pharmacology*
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / isolation & purification
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Mannans / isolation & purification
  • Mannans / pharmacology*
  • Sulfates


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Deoxy Sugars
  • Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Mannans
  • Sulfates
  • rhamnan