Breast cancer susceptibility gene II (BRCA2) is central in homologous recombination (HR). In meiosis, BRCA2 binds to MEILB2 to localize to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we identify BRCA2 and MEILB2-associating protein 1 (BRME1), which functions as a stabilizer of MEILB2 by binding to an α-helical N-terminus of MEILB2 and preventing MEILB2 self-association. BRCA2 binds to the C-terminus of MEILB2, resulting in the formation of the BRCA2-MEILB2-BRME1 ternary complex. In Brme1 knockout (Brme1-/-) mice, the BRCA2-MEILB2 complex is destabilized, leading to defects in DSB repair, homolog synapsis, and crossover formation. Persistent DSBs in Brme1-/- reactivate the somatic-like DNA-damage response, which repairs DSBs but cannot complement the crossover formation defects. Further, MEILB2-BRME1 is activated in many human cancers, and somatically expressed MEILB2-BRME1 impairs mitotic HR. Thus, the meiotic BRCA2 complex is central in meiotic HR, and its misregulation is implicated in cancer development.