Comparison of utilisation and fermentation of highly cross-linked phosphate starches produced from two different plant origins, potato and tapioca in rats and humans

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2020 Dec;71(8):1019-1031. doi: 10.1080/09637486.2020.1754349. Epub 2020 Apr 29.


The utilisation and fermentation of highly cross-linked phosphate starches made from two different origins, potato (HXL-P) and tapioca (HXL-T) were investigated in rats and humans. HXL-P and HXL-T were highly resistant to digestion by carbohydrate enzymes and were also resistant to fermentation by gut microbiota in rats. The postprandial blood glucose scarcely increased after administration of HXL-P or HXL-T in healthy humans. Incremental AUC of both HXL-P and HXL-T for 180 min was significantly lower than that of glucose (p < .05). Breath hydrogen excretion was very low after oral administration of HXL-P or HXL-T, and AUCs of breath hydrogen excretion for 13 h after administration were significantly lower than that of fructooligosaccharide as a reference of fermentation (p < .05). These results show that HXL-P and HXL-T were hardly digested and were highly resistant to fermentation. In conclusion, HXL-P and HXL-T could be good low-energy bulking ingredients to replace wheat flour.

Keywords: Fermentation; highly cross-linked phosphate starch; potato; resistant starch; tapioca; utilisation.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose
  • Body Weight
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Digestion
  • Edible Grain / chemistry
  • Fatty Acids
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Female
  • Fermentation*
  • Flour
  • Glucose
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Manihot / chemistry*
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Phosphates / metabolism*
  • Postprandial Period
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Solanum tuberosum / chemistry*
  • Starch / chemistry*
  • Triticum
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Fatty Acids
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Phosphates
  • fructooligosaccharide
  • Starch
  • Glucose