Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging, mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for recent epidemics across the Americas, and it is closely related to dengue virus (DENV). Here, we study samples from 46 DENV-naive and 43 DENV-immune patients with RT-PCR-confirmed ZIKV infection at early-acute, late-acute, and convalescent time points from our pediatric cohort study in Nicaragua. We analyze the samples via RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), CyTOF, and multiplex cytokine/chemokine Luminex to generate a comprehensive, innate immune profile during ZIKV infection. Immunophenotyping and analysis of cytokines/chemokines reveal that CD14+ monocytes play a key role during ZIKV infection. Further, we identify CD169 (Siglec-1) on CD14+ monocytes as a potential biomarker of acute ZIKV infection. Strikingly distinct transcriptomic and immunophenotypic signatures are observed at all three time points. Interestingly, pre-existing dengue immunity has minimal impact on the innate immune response to Zika. Finally, this comprehensive immune profiling and network analysis of ZIKV infection in children serves as a valuable resource.
Keywords: CyTOF; Luminex; RNA-seq; Zika virus; biomarker; dengue virus; immune profiling; innate immunity; monocytes; network model.
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.