Treacher Collins syndrome: A novel TCOF1 mutation and monopodial stapes

Clin Otolaryngol. 2020 Sep;45(5):695-702. doi: 10.1111/coa.13560. Epub 2020 May 25.


Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS: OMIM 154500) is an autosomal dominant craniofacial disorder belonging to the heterogeneous group of mandibulofacial dysostoses.

Objective: To investigate four Treacher Collins syndrome patients of the Sgaw Karen family living in Thailand.

Method: Clinical examination, hearing tests, lateral cephalometric analyses, Computed tomography, whole exome sequencing and Sanger direct sequencing were performed.

Results: All of the patients affected with Treacher Collins syndrome carried a novel TCOF1 mutation (c.4138_4142del; p.Lys1380GlufsTer12), but clinically they did not have the typical facial gestalt of Treacher Collins syndrome, which includes downward-slanting palpebral fissures, colobomas of the lower eyelids, absence of eyelashes medial to the colobomas, malformed pinnae, hypoplastic zygomatic bones and mandibular hypoplasia. Lateral cephalometric analyses identified short anterior and posterior cranial bases, and hypoplastic maxilla and mandible. Computed tomography showed fusion of malleus and incus, sclerotic mastoid, hypoplastic middle ear space with a soft tissue remnant, dehiscence of facial nerve and monopodial stapes.

Conclusion: Treacher Collins syndrome in Sgaw Karen patients has not been previously documented. This is the first report of monopodial stapes in a TCS patient who had a TCOF1 mutation. The absence of a common facial phenotype and/or the presence of monopodial stapes may be the effects of this novel TCOF1 mutation.

Keywords: dehiscence of facial nerve; fusion of malleus and incus; hypoplastic middle ear space with a soft tissue remnant; mandibulofacial dysplasia; middle ear malformations; sclerotic mastoid; short anterior and posterior cranial bases.

MeSH terms

  • Cephalometry
  • Child, Preschool
  • DNA / genetics*
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Mandibulofacial Dysostosis / diagnosis
  • Mandibulofacial Dysostosis / epidemiology
  • Mandibulofacial Dysostosis / genetics*
  • Mutation*
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Pedigree
  • Phenotype
  • Phosphoproteins / genetics*
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Stapes / abnormalities*
  • Stapes / diagnostic imaging
  • Thailand / epidemiology
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed


  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Phosphoproteins
  • TCOF1 protein, human
  • DNA