Multiple treatment options beyond anticoagulation exist for massive and submassive pulmonary embolism to reduce mortality. For some patients, systemic thrombolytics and catheter-directed thrombolysis are appropriate interventions. For others, surgical pulmonary embolectomy can be life-saving. Extracorporeal life support and right ventricular assist devices can provide hemodynamic support in challenging cases. We propose a management algorithm for the treatment of massive and submassive pulmonary embolism, in conjunction with a multidisciplinary pulmonary embolism response team, to guide clinicians in individualizing treatment for patients in a timely manner.
Keywords: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Pulmonary embolism; Surgical embolectomy; Thrombolysis.
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