Comparative Genomic Analysis Provides Insights into the Phylogeny, Resistome, Virulome, and Host Adaptation in the Genus Ewingella

Pathogens. 2020 Apr 28;9(5):330. doi: 10.3390/pathogens9050330.


Ewingella americana is a cosmopolitan bacterial pathogen that has been isolated from many hosts. Here, we sequenced a high-quality genome of E. americana B6-1 isolated from Flammulina filiformis, an important cultivated mushroom, performed a comparative genomic analysis with four other E. americana strains from various origins, and tested the susceptibility of B6-1 to antibiotics. The genome size, predicted genes, and GC (guanine-cytosine) content of B6-1 was 4.67 Mb, 4301, and 53.80%, respectively. The origin of the strains did not significantly affect the phylogeny, but mobile genetic elements shaped the evolution of the genus Ewingella. The strains encoded a set of common genes for type secretion, virulence effectors, CAZymes, and toxins required for pathogenicity in all hosts. They also had antibiotic resistance, pigments to suppress or evade host defense responses, as well as genes for adaptation to different environmental conditions, including temperature, oxidation, and nutrients. These findings provide a better understanding of the virulence, antibiotic resistance, and host adaptation strategies of Ewingella, and they also contribute to the development of effective control strategies.

Keywords: Ewingella americana; antibiotic resistance; brown rot disease; needle mushroom; virulence genes; whole-genome sequencing.