Endocr Pract. 2020 Jun 2;26(6):668-674. doi: 10.4158/EP-2020-0108. Epub 2020 May 1.


Objective: Previous studies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. We aimed to further clarify the clinical characteristics of diabetes with COVID-19. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with diabetes and COVID-19 were enrolled from January 29, 2020, to February 10, 2020, with a final follow-up on February 22, 2020. Epidemiologic, demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were analyzed. Results: The average age of the 28 patients was 68.6 ± 9.0 years. Most (75%) patients were male. Only 39.3% of the patients had a clear exposure of COVID-19. Fever (92.9%), dry cough (82.1%), and fatigue (64.3%) were the most common symptoms, followed by dyspnea (57.1%), anorexia (57.1%), diarrhea (42.9%), expectoration (25.0%), and nausea (21.4%). Fourteen patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The hemoglobin A1c level was similar between ICU and non-ICU patients. ICU patients had a higher respiratory rate, higher levels of random blood glucose, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, creatine, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, troponin I, D-dimers, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, ferritin, interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, and IL-8 than non-ICU patients. Eleven of 14 ICU patients received noninvasive ventilation and 7 patients received invasive mechanical ventilation. Twelve patients died in the ICU group and no patients died in the non-ICU group. Conclusion: ICU cases showed higher rates of organ failure and mortality than non-ICU cases. The poor outcomes of patients with diabetes and COVID-19 indicated that more supervision is required in these patients. Abbreviations: COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019; ICU = intensive care unit; MERS-CoV = middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus; 2019- nCoV = 2019 novel coronavirus; NT-proBNP = N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide; SARS-CoV = severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Betacoronavirus
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • COVID-19
  • China
  • Coronavirus Infections* / complications
  • Coronavirus Infections* / diagnosis
  • Coronavirus*
  • Diabetes Complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics*
  • Pneumonia, Viral* / complications
  • Pneumonia, Viral* / diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Biomarkers