Background: Familial cases of appendiceal mucinous tumours (AMTs) are extremely rare and the underlying genetic aetiology uncertain. We identified potential predisposing germline genetic variants in a father and daughter with AMTs presenting with pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) and correlated these with regions of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the tumours.
Methods: Through germline whole exome sequencing, we identified novel heterozygous loss-of-function (LoF) (i.e. nonsense, frameshift and essential splice site mutations) and missense variants shared between father and daughter, and validated all LoF variants, and missense variants with a Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion (CADD) scaled score of ≥10. Genome-wide copy number analysis was performed on tumour tissue from both individuals to identify regions of LOH.
Results: Fifteen novel variants in 15 genes were shared by the father and daughter, including a nonsense mutation in REEP5. None of these germline variants were located in tumour regions of LOH shared by the father and daughter. Four genes (EXOG, RANBP2, RANBP6 and TNFRSF1B) harboured missense variants that fell in a region of LOH in the tumour from the father only, but none showed somatic loss of the wild type allele in the tumour. The REEP5 gene was sequenced in 23 individuals with presumed sporadic AMTs or PMP; no LoF or rare missense germline variants were identified.
Conclusion: Germline exome sequencing of a father and daughter with AMTs identified novel candidate predisposing genes. Further studies are required to clarify the role of these genes in familial AMTs.
Keywords: Appendiceal tumour; Exome sequencing; Familial; Germline predisposition; Pseudomyxoma peritonei.